Saturday, June 4, 2016

Did you know? Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Skin Cleaners

For a long time, the skin hygiene is a concern.

Use soaps already existed in the time of the Egyptians, and Romans who used mixtures of water, ash from plants or animals and animal or vegetable oils. It was not until the ninth century that laid the soap said Marseille from animal bones containing potash, herbs and olive oil.

During World War II, was born the "syndet" (synthetic detergent). They are pharmacists US Navy for marine aircraft carriers of the US Navy isolated against Japan and sentenced to conserve drinking water, have sought a substitute for soap. The syndet is obtained with synthetic surfactants, foam it in fresh water and sea water.

The toilet is designed to eliminate waste on the surface of the skin to prevent infection and eliminate unpleasant odors.


-         The sweating products (inorganic and organic salts ...)
-         Sebum (fatty acids, waxes ...)
-         Cellular waste (fat, protein),
-         Dust, - bacteria and germs (Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Pytirosporum),
-         Possibly cosmetic care or makeup.


-         Water soluble substances (waste sweating),
-         Lipo-soluble substances (sebum, cell debris, most cosmetics),
-         The dust and bacteria mainly by its mechanical action.

Water can not only meet these requirements. To be effective, it must be combined with surface-active substances.

Recall that the surfactants are amphiphilic, absorb the interfaces (lower the surface tension) and give micelles (surround greasy elements that water can then be removed because they become water soluble). It follows five properties: wetting, dispersing, emulsifying, foaming detergent.


-         The soap
-         The syndets
-         Toilet milks,
-         Gels or foaming creams (skin conditioners).

The last three are from the same family, they are formulated from mixture of surfactants.


-         Anionic surfactants (soaps, sulfates), detergents good, good foam, irritating,
-         Cationic surfactants (quaternary ammonium salts) means detergents, foaming means, sometimes irritating, bactericidal and fungicidal,
-         Surfactants non- ionic (glycol ester, PEC) means detergents, bad foaming, well tolerated, excellent emulsifying and dispersing,
-         Amphoteric surfactants (betaine ...) means detergents, foaming means, very well tolerated.


They are obtained after a saponification reaction, that is to say, the hydrolysis of one or more fat (anionic surfactants) in alkaline medium. Further steps are needed to achieve the soap as we use it:

-         Elimination of glycerine and impurities,
-         Removal of water by evaporation,
-         Mechanical work to get to its final form.

We can add perfumes or deodorants, dyes, antiseptics and Super-fatting (<5%) such as sweet almond oil, olive oil or evening primrose. Quality soap depends on the choice of raw materials.

-         Good detergents, foaming good, good emulsifying, cheap

-         Soap effect: release of their base on contact with water, the pH of about 10 solution, changing the physiological pH of the skin irritant effect
-         Too much detergent, removing the surface hydrolipidic film (drying)
-         Precipitation of calcium salts (hard water) resulting in deposits on the enamel bathtubs and skin and prevents its use on dull hair.


Also known as "soap without soap," They are made from synthetic active surfactants. In general, these are mixtures of anionic surfactants useful for their good detergent and amphoteric surfactants whose tolerance is excellent. We can add:

-         Plasticizers (20-30%) that allow the solid standard presentation "soap", castor oil, polyol ester, fatty alcohol,
-         Neutral fillers or extenders (20-50%) which reduce the concentration of surface -Assets, starch, titanium oxide, polymer - foam stabilizers, coconut amide,
-         Preservatives and water (8-10%), - cosmetic adjuvants, antiseptics, super-fatting, sulfur, salicylic acid, weak organic acids (lactic or tartaric acid) to restore an acid pH of from 4 to 6.

-         Respect the skin pH,
-         Good detergency,
-         Respect of surface hydrolipidic film
-         No precipitation of calcium salts, can use on the scalp.

-         Sometimes low foaming,
-         More than the soap.


These are emulsions in general O / W low viscosity containing RT in sufficient quantity to emulsify the dirt displayed on the surface of the skin.

The fatty phase causes the fat-soluble impurities (liquid petroleum jelly, perhydrosqualene, vegetable oils). The aqueous phase leads to the water-soluble impurities (aromatic purified water or distilled water). Surfactants maintain impurities in suspension. They are generally non-ionic. In their composition also fall preservatives and fragrances.

Qualities required for milk are:
-         Appearance, odor,
-         Ease of spreading,
-         Ease of removal of the hydrophilic and lipophilic particles
-         pH adapted to skin pH,
-         Low detergency,
-         Respect the hydrolipidic film
-         Lipid phase adapted to the skin type.

-         Gentle cleansing,
-         Respect the skin pH,
-         Met surface film.

-         Need a toilet in two stages and a second product, tonic or astringent
-         Sometimes difficult elimination
-         Low detergency,
-         Sometimes high price.


Foaming cleansing gels called "liquid bread", creams, foams, emulsions cleaning. These are associations of synthetic surfactants, in fact syndet.


Clean skin is a balancing act that eliminates the screen dirt made each day by the environment, makeup and secretions. This screen slows the natural desquamation, thereby promotes bacterial overgrowth.

Maintain the physiological balance is a fundamental rule regardless of the type of toilet selected.

The toilet must:
-         Keep the skin pH (4.5 to 5.5)
-         Respect the surface hydrolipidic film that maintains skin hydration. There is an ecology area to be respected. It is a guarantee of health and beauty of the skin. The cosmetologist must have as the main concern of protecting it.

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